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O Ciclo Da Auto Sabotagem Pdf Download




O Ciclo Da Auto Sabotagem - Stanley Rosner Patricia Hermes.pdf. Ciclo Da Auto-Sabotagem - Stanley Rosner Patricia Hermes.pdf. Views 3,165 Downloads 418 File size 3MB. Report DMCA / Copyright.Catalytic converters are well known and widely used in motor vehicles to control the discharge of harmful exhaust emissions. The most commonly used catalytic converters are of the monolithic variety. In monolithic converters, a metallic substrate is provided with a coating of refractory material such as alumina, which is porous to permit exhaust gases to contact catalyst material supported thereon. Monolithic converters are relatively light weight, durable and simple to manufacture. However, they are effective only at relatively low temperatures and are not useful for effectively treating gasoline-fueled vehicles. In order to treat gasoline-fueled vehicles, it is known to provide a ceramic honeycomb substrate with a catalytic coating and then couple such coated substrate to a metal housing or shell. The use of a ceramic honeycomb substrate provides the advantage of a catalytic coating at high temperatures, e.g., on the order of about C. or more. However, a ceramic honeycomb substrate is relatively heavy. Moreover, the ceramic substrate must be coated before it can be effectively bonded to the housing. This procedure requires the application of a catalyst-releasing coat and a catalyst-receiving coat, and it is time-consuming and expensive. It is also known to provide a metal substrate with a catalytic coating and then couple the coated substrate to a housing. However, metal substrates have a relatively high thermal coefficient of expansion, and a metal housing is used to couple the substrate to the housing. This arrangement has been found to be impractical because of the tendency of the coated metal substrate to work itself free of the housing. It is known to coat monolithic substrates and metal honeycomb substrates with a refractory material, such as alumina or silica-alumina, and then couple the coated substrate to a metal housing. An example of such a construction is shown in U.S. Pat. No. 4,098,927 to Han, et al. However, such arrangements are relatively heavy because the metal housing must be relatively thick to support the coated substrate. Moreover, such arrangements can create stresses at the interface between the housing and the coated substrate and can result in cracking or crazing of the coated substrate, especially when the




O Ciclo Da Auto Sabotagem Pdf Download
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